Friday, 27 January 2017
The sun is the greatest source of energy you can think of and it can also be a source of great concern to the health of an individual. It is also a vital ingredient in beauty tips.
Cancer is overwhelmingly caused by where you are, what you do, and what happens to you in life, rather than by what you are that is your genetic makeup. Environmental factors are more important than gene factors, smoking causes about 35 percent of cancer, while another 30 percent appear to be related to diet and another fraction caused by exposure to sunlight. Genetic factors play a part in prostate, colorectal, and breast cancer, even if you have a family history of cancer what you do with your life is much more important.
Vitamin D is needed for absorption of calcium so that the mineral can take its place in bone and shore up the skeleton against fractures. 90 percent of our vitamin D is made in our skin upon exposure to sunlight. But excessive exposure can damage the skin thereby causing a type of skin cancer called melanoma. Mild exposure of the skin to the sun is good for the skin that is why morning sunlight is recommended, the time should be between 7am to 10am anytime more than that could be harmful to the skin. Light skin women seem to be more at risk than dark skin women, simply because the substance that protect the skin from sunlight damage called melanin is found to be higher in dark skin women than light skin women. So also dark skin women will require more vitamin D in their body than light skin women. The side effect of excessive exposure to the sun is more horrible in women that are using bleaching cream and soap to remove the dark top layer of their skin because apart from weakening the melanin it’s also expose the skin to the slightest irritation from the environment.
There has been a dramatic increase in melanoma, the most serious of skin tumors, by the middle of the 20th century, melanoma occurred in 1 out of every 1500 people. This number had soared to 1 out of every 75 individuals, mainly because of the tanning fashion. It has been established that 40 percent of melanoma tumors involve genetic factors, while the remaining 60 percent involve excessive exposure to the sun. Women between the ages of 23 and 50 are mostly affected. During childhood and adolescence, mutations in skin pigment cells cam triggered by solar radiation, although cancer may not appear until many years later. The skin keeps a memory of the solar radiation received. Early melanoma signs are  thickening anywhere on your skin,  any puss like discharge from the skin,  any change in the color or texture of the skin,  an abnormally soft or tender skin. These signs are less accurate in younger women than older women, resulting in unnecessary treatment and anxiety.
It is advisable never to use bleaching creams and soaps on your skin; you should also endeavor to avoid excessive exposure to sunlight. You can do your tanning in the morning when it is safe to do so.
Tuesday, 24 January 2017
The word “prosthesis” refers to an artificial substitute that replaces a lost limb or body part. Prosthetics is the field of knowledge relating to prostheses. A prosthetist is a person skilled in prosthetics and practicing its application.
The first step in manufacturing an artificial limb is fitting a sleeve to patient’s healed stump. A plaster cast is then made, from which an exact duplicate of the stump can be formed. The model is then used to build a socket into which the new limb is fitted. So begins the journey on the road to producing a fully functional limb to replace the one lost. A newer, more efficient fitting technique is the use of CAD/CAM programs to measure the stump. Then a machine carves out an exact replica of the person’s remnant limb.
The hydraulic knee joint fitted to a thermoplastic socket that can be heat-molded and reshaped for the patient’s comfort. Comprehensive illustrated catalogs of such items are available from a variety of sources worldwide.
In the final stages of limb, construction, fine adjustment are made to align the socket, knee, skin, and foot parts in order to ensure the most natural gait possible. Last of all, a foam cover is prepared. This serves to conceal the bones of the artificial limb. The cosmetic finish is made to match the remaining natural limb as closely as possible.
After a patient achieves a reasonable degree of confidence, arrangements are made for the patient to consult with a visiting orthopedic surgeon at the limb center. Thus, a professional final check is carried out to ensure the optimum use of the new limb.
ARTIFICIAL LIMB FOR CHILDREN AND ATHLETES
I learned that not long ago a European manufacturer shipped a container of components of prosthetic limbs for athletes to Sydney, Australia, for use at the Paralympics. These were supplied to competitors free of charge, and prosthetists, including some from New Zealand were on hand to help the contestants during the games.
Some of the limb parts had been developed especially for athletes. A foot- and-ankle component constructed of a special material that duplicates the natural spring in a human foot.Prostheses are also fitted to infants as young as six months, because it provides training for later use of an artificial hand or arm. Without such training, the youngster grows up to be one-arm dependent and can find it difficult to adjust to the use of two arms later in life
Thursday, 12 January 2017
The sun; a giant, glowing ball of gas some 850,000 miles in diameter. The temperature at its surface is over 11,000 F., hot enough to vaporize any material known to man. Deep within the sun, the temperature rises to over twenty million degrees, a heat we cannot begin to imagine or comprehend.
The sun dominates our solar system, containing more than 99% of the system’s matter. The sun is a thousand times as massive as Jupiter, the largest planet, and 335,000 times as massive as the earth. And if the sun were hollow, 1,300,000 earths could be fitted inside!
In short, the sun is immense; it is the unquestioned center of the solar system.
And yet, when compared with other stars, the sun is nothing more than average. There are stars a dozen times as massive as the sun, and others but a tenth as large. There are stars that outshine our sun 50,000 times over, and others just a hundredth as bright.
In fact, the sun is a very middling sort of star, not overly large, not overly small. But this average sort of star is of paramount importance to every living thing on earth. Without the sun, life here obviously not possible. Plants live and grow by means of photosynthesis, making direct use of the sun’s energy; animals survive by feeding on stored food produced by the plants. All our energy sources [save nuclear power] depend, in the end result, on the energy of the sun; even coal and oil are solar energy, trapped by primitive plants hundreds of millions of years ago and stored underground for years.
Without the sun, we wouldn’t be here. That’s why the future behavior of the sun is of the utmost importance to us.
The sun is, as I’ve said earlier, is an average star. It is now approaching middle age, having been around for about five billion years. The sun should continue to shine as it does now for about another five billion years before its fuel is exhausted.
The sun, astronomers have told us in the past, is a stable star: its output of light and heat is unvarying over millions of years. That’s reassuring: as long as the sun remains as it is now, life on earth remains possible. Were the sun to heat up, let’s say, by only a small fraction of its total energy output, the oceans will boil and the earth would become a parched, uninhabitable wasteland. Were the sun to cool off by only a small fraction of its total output, the glaciers would descend from the poles and earth would turn into a frozen, icy world forever. All life would perish.
But the sun, astronomers told us, is quiet and well-behaved. It won’t heat up, it won’t cool down, and we have nothing to fear.
As recent as ten years ago, astronomers were completely sure of this point. But now their ideas about the stability of the sun have been challenged, and some of their new findings are unsettling and disturbing indeed.
THE ENERGY MACHINE
Deep within the core of the sun, nuclear reactions take place. In these reactions, hydrogen is converted to helium, and a small amount of matter is converted into energy. Every second some 616 million tons of hydrogen are changed to 612 million tons of helium. That difference of four million tons of matter is converted into energy –and this energy is responsible for the heat and the light of the sun.
In these reactions various subatomic particles are produced. We are concerned here with only one, the NEUTRINO. The neutrino is a very strange sort of particle indeed. It seems to have mass, no weight; it always travels at the speed of light; and to the neutrino, matter is as transparent as empty space. The neutrino could travel through trillions of miles of solid lead before being stopped.
The neutrino, once it is formed in the center of the sun, takes off at a speed of light, 186,000 miles per second. In two and a half seconds it has left the sun behind; in eight and a half minutes it has reached the orbit of the earth.
While neutrinos are clear of the sun almost immediately, the same is not true of ordinary radiation. The energy released in the center of the sun must work its way to the surface; the particles are radiated and absorbed, radiated and absorbed; and only after a million years have passed does a ray of light make it to the surface of the sun, where it takes off into space. The sunlight which illuminates the earth was actually formed in the solar core a million years ago!
This fact lends special importance to neutrinos, for while all the rest of the sun’s radiation is a million years old by the time it gets to us, the neutrinos have left the solar core just minutes ago. Scientists decided that to get a good idea of what’s going on in the center of the sun they’d somehow have to detect neutrinos.
This is not an easy task, for as I have noted, an individual neutrino is virtually never stopped by matter. And yet the sun produces hundreds of billions of neutrinos every second, so that while an individual neutrino may almost never stop by matter, the odds are that at least a few of these hundreds of billions of neutrinos will be stopped.
There has been no mystery which has intrigued man’s mind more than that of creation. How and even why did all things, the whole world, come into existence? Was it through spontaneous means, or was it predetermined? If it was spontaneous, was there a previously created contributing substance? To cite chaos as the spring from which the world came forth simply precipitates the question as to whether chaos had a quality in itself. If it had, then what was its origin?
If one accepts the alternative, that is, the concept of a predetermined reason, he enters the realm of teleology, or mind as the motivating force of creation. This assumes that creation was a primary idea, an objective to be attained; that it was predetermined.
This conception engenders the idea of an embodied mind residing in a thinking, reasoning entity. The only parallel we have for such a mental capacity is the human mind. Therefore, it is quite understandable that men would think of such an infinite mind as an attribute of a supernatural being.
If such being had the faculty of planning, formulating ideas, it must also have other attributes similar to those of mortals, such as the emotions, passions, and sentiments. Thus the notion of gods was born.
At first these gods were thought of as apotheosized humans; in other words, mortals who had attained a divine status. Later, the gods were conceived as self-generated beings, and eventually the belief in a monotheistic being, as sole God, was promulgated. The sole God, too, was thought to have been self-generated, that nothing had preceded such a deity. These notions aroused polemic theological and ontological discussions; in other words, they centered on the enigma of the phrase, “self-generated.” Did the term generation imply a creation from a pre-existing “something” that was transmuted into deity? Or did it mean the God came into existence from a void, a condition of non-existence? Even if the latter view is accepted, there is the implication that this non-existence is a negative reality. Once again we return to the repetitious question of “Whence came that state or condition which is given the reality of a ‘non-existence’? “If it is realized and if it is named, is it not, therefore, a “thing”?
THE METAPHYSICAL ASPECT OF CREATION
This brings us to another aspect of creation –the metaphysical. Did the world pass through a nascent state, that is, did it necessarily have a beginning? This question involves the profound subject of causality. Are there actually such things as causes? Or are they but a precept, a mere abstract idea, of human faculties? Aristotle, on his doctrine of causality, set forth four types of causes:
1. The material cause, of which something arises.
2. The formal cause, the pattern or essence which determines the creation of a thing.
3. The efficient cause, or the force or agent producing an effect.
4. The final cause, or purpose.
We will note that the first and third definitions imply a pre-existing condition; in other words, that something was, out of which something else came into existence. In fact, the third definition expounds that this pre-existing state, or force, brought a transition, a change in itself, which then was the effect. The fourth definition strongly suggests determinism, that is, that all being was self-designed to attain a particular ultimate state or condition.
It is not possible that attributing a cause to the world is due to man’s concept that for every positive state there is an opposite one of equal reality? More simply, that non-being exists also? That which is suggests non-existence as an opposite state out of which, it may be imagined, came the substance, the cause of that which has discernible reality. It is difficult to derive from common human experience the idea that there has never been a primary cause of things.
As we look about us, we see what seems to constitute a series of specific causes by which things appear as the effects. However, what we observe as causes are in themselves but effects, too, of preceding changes. Due to our limited faculties of perception, we are unable to see an infinite number of apparent causes. We may presume that such do exist or think that there was an initial, that is, a first cause, a beginning. In drawing on our experience with natural phenomena, we thus imagine that the cosmos had some beginning. To theorize about such beginning is only to return to the original perplexing question, “Whence did it come?”
Ordinarily overlooked is an important doctrine in connection with the subject of creation, and whether there was a beginning –namely, the doctrine of necessity. From a point of ratiocination, necessity is a state wherein a thing cannot be other than it is. Applying this doctrine to the question of cosmos and creation, we must ask ourselves the question: was a beginning necessary?” in other words, could there have been anything other than the cosmos? Nothing is only the negation of what is; it has no reality in itself. There can be nothing apart from what is. Since nothing is non-existent, all else then is by necessity –it must be. Being is positive, active, there is no absolute inertial.
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